Calligraphy Qalam: An Introduction to Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Calligraphy

CalligraphyQalam.com uses interactive tools to interest new audiences in Arabic, Ottoman and Persian calligraphy.

Calligraphy styles

As you’ve likely noticed, works of calligraphy in Arabic, Turkish or Persian can look very different from each other. The different styles of writing used in calligraphy are called scripts. Each script has distinct visual characteristics and follows specific rules. Once you begin to recognize these characteristics, you will be able to tell the scripts apart from each other.

Scripts were created for different purposes and needs. A script used for the Koran, for example, needed to be legible and serious (see Muhaqqaq). Gracefulness was important in a script used for poetry (see Nasta‘liq). Personal correspondence required a script that was easy to read and write (see Riq‘a). And scripts used by royalty needed to appear official as well as be complex enough to prevent forgery (see Divani).

Some scripts stood the test of time, while others became obsolete. The scripts that best responded to the needs of a particular time and place were the ones that lasted. For example, Kufic lost its early popularity because it proved difficult to write. The best scripts were refined by calligraphers over centuries.

To the right you will find a list of several important calligraphy scripts, with links to further information and examples. When you’re done studying the scripts, take the script quiz to test your knowledge.

>> Check out our interactive timeline!

Check out our interactive timeline

Kufic & Maghribi

Kufic and maghribi scripts

Kufic and maghribi scripts.

Muhaqqaq & Rayhani

Muhaqqaq and rayhani scripts

Muhaqqaq and rayhani scripts.

Tawqi' & Riqa'

Tawqi' and riqa' scripts

Tawqi' and riqa' scripts.

Thuluth & Naskh

Thuluth and naskh scripts

Thuluth and naskh scripts.

Ta'liq, Nasta'liq & Shikaste

Ta'liq, nasta'liq and shikaste scripts

Ta'liq, nasta'liq and shikaste scripts.

Divani & Riq'a

Divani and riq'a scripts

Divani and riq'a scripts.

Script image galleries

Kufic | Maghribi | Muhaqqaq | Rayhani | Tawqi' | Riqa' | Thuluth | Naskh | Ta'liq | Nasta'liq | Shikaste
Divani | Riq'a