Calligraphy Qalam: An Introduction to Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Calligraphy

CalligraphyQalam.com uses interactive tools to interest new audiences in the traditional art forms of Arabic, Ottoman and Persian calligraphy.

Shaykh Sa'di (d. 691/1292) composed his famous "Gulistan" (The Rose Garden) in 654/1256. His work includes eight chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. Each chapter narrates a number of stories, maxims and admonitions. This fragment is the first page of the Gulistan's introduction, initiated at the top by a bismillah and followed by Sa'di's praise of God.

Calligrapher: unknown. India. 18th century. 8.7 x 17.5 cm. Indian ta'liq script. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, African and Middle Eastern Division.

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