Calligraphy Qalam: An Introduction to Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Calligraphy uses interactive tools to interest new audiences in the traditional art forms of Arabic, Ottoman and Persian calligraphy.

This calligraphic fragment includes a number of lyrical verses, or ghazals, composed by Shaykh Sa'di (d. 691/1292). Many of these verses express the pain at separation from a friend and exhort faithfulness to one's companions.

Calligrapher: 'Abd al-Majid. Iran. 17th century. 4.9 x 10.9 cm. Shikaste script. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, African and Middle Eastern Division.

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