Calligraphy Qalam: An Introduction to Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Calligraphy

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This ijaza, or diploma of competency in Arabic script calligraphy, was written by 'Ali Ra'if Efendi in 1791. In the two lowermost panels appear the signed approvals of two master calligraphers, Mustafa al-Halimi and Husayn Hamid.

Calligrapher: 'Ali Ra'if Efendi. 1791 A.D. 28 x 21 cm. Thuluth and naskh scripts. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, African and Middle Eastern Division.

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