Calligraphy Qalam: An Introduction to Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Calligraphy

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Korans were frequently transported from one part of the Islamic world to another, encouraging the dissemination of certain calligraphic styles and formats. This folio was originally part of a now dispersed, thirty-volume copy that was transcribed in an unusual hybrid script, referred to by scholars as "thuluth verging on muhaqqaq." The text, notable for the size of the script in relation to that of the folio, is framed with a kufic inscription set against a gold, floral scroll.

Probably Anatolia and India. 14th-15th century. 28.8 x 18.6 cm. Rayhani, Muhaqqaq, naskh and kufic scripts. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

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