Calligraphy Qalam: An Introduction to Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Calligraphy uses interactive tools to interest new audiences in the traditional art forms of Arabic, Ottoman and Persian calligraphy.

During the reign of the Mamluk dynasty in Egypt and Syria (1250-1517), the production of Korans reached new levels of refinement and sophistication. By the fourteenth century a series of more legible cursive scripts had replaced kufic as the standard Koranic script. This folio is written in muhaqqaq, an elegant cursive script particularly favored for Mamluk Korans.

Egypt. 14th century. 41.1 x 31.6 cm. Muhaqqaq and thuluth scripts. Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution.

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