Calligraphy Qalam: An Introduction to Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Calligraphy

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This folio is written in a mature eastern kufic script, characterized by elegantly formed letters and generous spaces between words. Following the introduction of paper in the late eighth century, eleventh-century calligraphers were able to write on relatively large sheets and experiment with the relationship of the text to the page as a whole. The verses here are from surah 8, entitled "al-Anfal" (the Spoils of War) and explain some of the advantages of military discipline.

Probably eastern Iran. Late 11th century. Eastern kufic script. Courtesy of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

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