Calligraphy Qalam: An Introduction to Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Calligraphy uses interactive tools to interest new audiences in the traditional art forms of Arabic, Ottoman and Persian calligraphy.

Calligraphers in the Maghrib (i.e. North Africa and Spain) favored thin, light letters with deep flourishes that curve below the line and create a rhythmic effect, as seen in this folio.

Iran. 11th–12th century. 32.3 x 21.4 cm. Kufic script. Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution.

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